Sichua People

The Sichuan population consists mainly of the Han People, an integration of many Chinese ethnic groups tracing back from the ancient times. In addition, in Garze, Aba and Liangshan Autonomous Prefectures and other parts of the plateau and mountainous area inhabit Tibetans, the second largest Tibetan region in China; Near Large and Little Liangshan and Anning River Drainage Basin there is the largest Yi Ethnic Region; Mao County, Wenchuan, Heishui, Songpan, Beichuan and other places along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River are the only habitation area of Ethnic Qiang in our country. Besides these large-scale habitation regions of ethnic minorities, in Sichuan there are also 14 indigenous minorities including Ethic Hui, Mongolian, Susu, Manchu, Naxi, Bai, Buyi, Dai, Miao and Tujia.

Han People: in 316 BC, Qin Emperor Hui destroyed the ancient Shu Kingdom and since then the Shu has become the granary of the State of Qin, which laid a foundation for the Qin unifying the six countries and later the whole China. During the Qin Emperor Shao Period, Li Bing and his son organized the construction of the large-scale water conservancy project of Dujiangyan near Chengdu, which for more than two thousand years has been functioning as the flood control and irrigation. For more than two thousand years, Dujiangyan has made the Chengdu Plain into “the Land of Abundance”, where people are able to control the flood and drought, as a result, fertile soil covers thousand square kilometer of land. At the end of the Han Dynasty, relying on the assistance of Zhuge Liang, Liu Bei established in Sichuan the Shu Kingdom, which formed a close competition to Northern Wei and Eastern Wu, and the unique culture of the Three Kingdoms has left its impact up to now. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Ancient Tea Horse and the Silk Road to the west has continued the glory of Shu. To the Northern Song Dynasty, in Sichuan appeared Jiaozi, the earliest paper money in the world. It is fair to say, up to the late Ming dynasty and the beginning of Qing, due to the difficulty of entering Sichuan, few conflicts have plagued here, and along with Dujiangyan, which has been irrigating thousand square kilometers of fertile land, Sichuan has been able to keep its stability of development, politically, economically and culturally as well. But after the wars at the End of Yuan and Beginning of Ming, as well as those at the end of Ming Dynasty and the Beginning of Qing, the population of Sichuan has decreased dramatically. The central and local governments have therefore adopted a series of measures to attract immigrants, among which the most have come from Hunan and Guangxi Provinces. Taking Chengdu as an example, according to the Chengdu Overview at the late Qing Dynasty, it has recorded that "Chengdu people of today are all of outside origins". During the Anti-Japanese War, Chiang kai-shek has moved the capital to Chongqing, also living a lot of elites in Sichuan. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the "Three Line" Construction has also brought a large number of people from other provinces into Sichuan. With the wheel of history rolling on, the replacement and fusion of all kinds of culture and folk has been taking place, leaving the Han people living today in Sichuan an attitude of tolerance, open-mind, leisure and pleasure towards life.

Tibetan People: Tibetans were formerly the ancient Tubo People. In A.D. 633, Sontzen Gampo established in Lhasa the Tubo Kingdom. After constant battles, multiple minorities around the region have been incorporated, as well as some of the Han People, which has formed today's Tibetans. Inside the Tibetans there are numerous branches, with different languages and different cultures. Based on the dialect, three major Tibetan groups could be categorized: the Amdo Tibetan, the Khampa Tibetan and and the U-stang Tibetan. Other small branches include the Jiarong Tibetan, the Muya Tibetan and the Baima Tibetan, etc. In addition to the fact that the U-stang Tibetan mainly live in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of Tibet, Sichuan has become the second largest Tibetan-inhabited areas in China. In Sichuan Province, the Amdo Tibetan mainly live in the Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, which has the world natural heritages, such as Jiuzhaigou Valley, Huanglong Valley and main scenic spots such as Ruo’ergai Prairie. In addition to the development of tourism and specialty, the region is mainly for the pastoral areas. Khampa Tibetan is mainly distributed in Garze Tibetan Autonomous Region, with Hailuogou Valley, Yading Nature Reserve, Mt. Gongga and other famous scenic spots. Here, the Gesa’er Culture, the Love Song Culture, the Red Culture, the Khampa Culture and all kinds of other folk cultures add radiance and beauty to each other, with the working songs of the porters being sung along the Ancient Tea Horse & the Silk Road for thousands of years; the Baima Tibetan is a unique branch of the Tibetans, who find their inhabitation community both in Songpan County and in Jiuzhaigou County. They don't intermarry with the Han and other Tibetans, and they have their own language, using but Chinese characters; the Jiarong Tibetans living in Danba, Xiaojin, and Ya’an Qiaoqi Tibetan Village, where sceneries are beautiful, have created their own architectural features. They live nearer the hinterland, and the traffic there is more convenient, which facilitates more visitors from other inland provinces of a Tibetan experience.

Qiang People: concentrated in Mao County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, as well as Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County, Mianyang and other places. As one of the oldest in the history of Chinese ethnic minorities, parts of the Qiang People still retains much of primitive religious worship of multi-god, the majority of which worship the nature (white stone worship) and the ancestors; besides, worship of Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity, Catholicism, Islam have all affected the Qiang area, and especially the influence of Tibetan Buddhism is the most significant. The Qiang People have their own language, but most of the Qiang People also speak Chinese. Every year the Qiang have a lot of ritual activities, and the worship of Heaven God is the most frequent, the worship of Mountain God is the most ceremonious. Heaven God and Mountain God are both represented by white stones. The Qiang People’s handicraft skill is superb, and the Qiang clothing, embroidery and carpets are famous both at home and abroad; the Qiang residential buildings have towers and bridges as the best representative of its unique form of art and exquisite technical level; the Qiang Sip Wine Culture, Kasidawen Dance (Armor Dance) are with unique customs; in 2006, Kasidawen Dance has been, upon the approval of the State Council, listed in the first batch of State-level Intangible Cultural Heritage List. The Qiang Annual Festival on the lunar October the first, as well as their weddings, solemn ritual activities, rites, Women's Day on May the firth are all good time to experience the specialty of the Qiang folk. Qiang Sip Wine Culture, Kasidawen Dance (Armor Dance), multi-voice folk songs and the Red Army Culture all have a long history.

Yi People: Yi is the sixth largest ethnic minority in China, mainly living in southwest China's Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Provinces, also with settlements in coastal areas. But in Sichuan Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture they have one of the biggest inhabitation areas. Yi people have their own language, and have created their own syllabus characters, with a glyph representing a meaning and the total number of words at more than ten thousand. Yi residential architectural style, building decoration, and even clothing, wooden tableware, colored drawing or pattern are all represented by the three colors of black, red and yellow; the colors are bright, beautiful and delicate. The Yi People are good at singing and dancing; in the Yi New Year, Torch Festival and other major festivals, the Yi People dress in costumes, dance around the bonfire, with full of passion.

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